• Posted by Konstantin 02.05.2017 2 Comments

    I happen to use the Amazon cloud machines from time to time for various personal and work-related projects. Over the years I've accumulated a terabyte or so of data files there. Those are mostly useless intermediate results or expired back-ups, which should be deleted and forgotten, but I could not gather the strength for that. "What if those datafiles happen to be of some archaelogical interest 30 years from now?", I thought. Keeping them just lying there on an Amazon machine is, however, a waste of money - it would be cheaper to download them all onto a local hard drive and tuck it somewhere into a dark dry place.

    But what would be the fastest way to download a terabyte of data from the cloud? Obviously, large downstream bandwidth is important here, but so should be a smart choice of the transfer technology. To my great suprise, googling did not provide me with a simple and convincing answer. A question posted to StackOverflow did not receive any informative replies and even got downvoted for reasons beyond my understanding. It's year 2017, but downloading a file is still not an obvious matter, apparently.

    Unhappy with such state of affairs I decided to compare some of the standard ways for downloading a file from a cloud machine. Although the resulting measurements are very configuration-specific, I believe the overall results might still generalize to a wider scope.

    Experimental Setup

    Consider the following situation:

    • An m4.xlarge AWS machine (which is claimed to have "High" network bandwidth) located in the EU (Ireland) region, with an SSD storage volume (400 Provisioned IOPS) attached to it.
    • A 1GB file with random data, generated on that machine using the following command:
      $ dd if=/dev/urandom of=file.dat bs=1M count=1024
    • The file needs to be transferred to a university server located in Tartu (Estonia). The server has a decently high network bandwidth and uses a mirrored-striped RAID for its storage backend.

    Our goal is to get the file from the AWS machine into the university server in the fastest time possible. We will now try eight different methods for that, measuring the mean transfer time over 5 attempts for each method.

    File Download Methods

    One can probably come up with hundreds of ways for transferring a file. The following eight are probably the most common and reasonably easy to arrange.

    1. SCP (a.k.a. SFTP)

    • Server setup: None (the SSH daemon is usually installed on a cloud machine anyway).
    • Client setup: None (if you can access a cloud server, you have the SSH client installed already).
    • Download command:

      scp -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.amazon \
               ubuntu@$REMOTE_IP:/home/ubuntu/file.dat .

    2. RSync over SSH

    • Server setup: sudo apt install rsync (usually installed by default).
    • Client setup: sudo apt install rsync (usually installed by default).
    • Download command:

      rsync -havzP --stats \
            -e "ssh -i $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.amazon" \
            ubuntu@$REMOTE_IP:/home/ubuntu/file.dat .

    3. Pure RSync

    • Server setup:
      Install RSync (usually already installed):

      sudo apt install rsync

      Create /etc/rsyncd.conf with the following contents:

      pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid
      lock file = /var/run/rsync.lock
      log file = /var/log/rsync.log
      path = /home/ubuntu

      Run the RSync daemon:

      sudo rsync --daemon
    • Client setup: sudo apt install rsync (usually installed by default).
    • Download command:

      rsync -havzP --stats \
            rsync://$REMOTE_IP/files/file.dat .

    4. FTP (VSFTPD+WGet)

    • Server setup:
      Install VSFTPD:

      sudo apt install vsftpd

      Edit /etc/vsftpd.conf:

      pasv_address=   # The public IP of the AWS machine

      Create password for the ubuntu user:

      sudo passwd ubuntu

      Restart vsftpd:

      sudo service vsftpd restart
    • Client setup: sudo apt install wget (usually installed by default).
    • Download command:

      wget ftp://ubuntu:somePassword@$REMOTE_IP/file.dat

    5. FTP (VSFTPD+Axel)

    Axel is a command-line tool which can download through multiple connections thus increasing throughput.

    • Server setup: See 4.
    • Client setup: sudo apt install axel
    • Download command:

      axel -a ftp://ubuntu:somePassword@$REMOTE_IP/home/ubuntu/file.dat

    6. HTTP (NginX+WGet)

    • Server setup:
      Install NginX:

      sudo apt install nginx

      Edit /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default, add into the main server block:

      location /downloadme {
          alias /home/ubuntu;
          gzip on;

      Restart nginx:

      sudo service nginx restart
    • Client setup: sudo apt install wget (usually installed by default).
    • Download command:

      wget http://$REMOTE_IP/downloadme/file.dat

    7. HTTP (NginX+Axel)

    • Server setup: See 6.
    • Client setup: sudo apt install axel
    • Download command:

      axel -a http://$REMOTE_IP/downloadme/file.dat

    8. AWS S3

    The last option we try is first transferring the files onto an AWS S3 bucket, and then downloading from there using S3 command-line tools.

    • Server setup:
      Install and configure AWS command-line tools:

      sudo apt install awscli
      aws configure

      Create an S3 bucket:

      aws --region us-east-1 s3api create-bucket \
          --acl public-read-write --bucket test-bucket-12345 \
          --region us-east-1

      We create the bucket in the us-east-1 region because the S3 tool seems to have a bug at the moment which prevents from using it in the eu regions.

      Next, we transfer the file to the S3 bucket:

      aws --region us-east-1 s3 cp file.dat s3://test-bucket-12345
    • Client setup:
      Install and configure AWS command-line tools:

      sudo apt install awscli
      aws configure
    • Download command:

      aws --region us-east-1 s3 cp s3://test-bucket-12345/file.dat .


    Here are the measurement results. In case of the S3 method we report the total time needed to upload from the server to S3 and download from S3 to the local machine. Note that I did not bother to fine-tune any of the settings - it may very well be possible that some of the methods can be sped up significantly by configuring the servers appropriately. Consider the results below to indicate the "out of the box" performance of the corresponding approaches.

    Although S3 comes up as the fastest method (and might be even faster if it worked out of the box with the european datacenter), RSync is only marginally slower, yet it is easier to use, requires usually no additional set-up and handles incremental downloads very gracefully. I would thus summarize the results as follows:

    Whenever you need to download large files from the cloud, consider RSync over SSH as the default choice.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 27.07.2016 2 Comments

    While writing the previous post I was thinking of coming up with a small fun illustration for Aframe. I first heard about AFrame at the recent European Innovation Academy - a team-project-based entrepreneurship summer school. The team called MemVee was aiming to develop an AFrame-based site which would allow students to design and view interactive "Memory Palaces" - three-dimensional spaces with various objects related to their current study topics, organized in a way that simplifies remembering things for visual learners. Although I have never viewed a "Memory Palace" as something beyond a fantastic concept from a Sherlock Holmes TV episode, I am a visual learner myself and understand the importance of such illustrations. In fact, I try to use and preach graphical references in my teaching practice whenever I find the time and opportunity:

    • In this lecture the concept of a desk is used as a visual metaphor of "structuring the information" as well as to provide an outline to the talk.
    • Here and here an imaginary geographical map is used in a similar context.
    • For the computer graphics course I had to develop some "slides" as small OpenGL apps for visualizing the concepts during the lecture. This has been later taken to extreme heights in the practical materials designed by Raimond-Hendrik, who went on to give this course (alongside with a seminar) in the following years. Unfortunately the materials are closed for non-participants (yet I still hope they will be opened some day, do you read this, Raimond?), but the point is that every single notion has a tiny WebGL applet made to illustrate it interactively.
    • Once I tried to make a short talk about computer graphics, where the slides would be positioned on the walls of a 3D maze, so that to show them I'd have to "walk through the maze", like in a tiny first-person shooter game. Although this kind of visualization was not at all useful as a learning aid (as it did not structure anything at all), it none the less looked cool and was very well appreciated by the younger audience of the talk, to whom it was aimed at.

    I have lost the sources of that last presentation to a computer error and decided to recreate a similar "maze with slides" with AFrame. The night was long and I got sucked into the process to the point of making an automated tool. You upload your slides, and it generates a random maze with your slides hanging on the walls. It is utterly useless, but the domain name "slideamaze.com" was free and I could not resist the pun.

    Check it out. If you are into programming-related procrastination, try saving the "mazes" generated by the tool on your computer and editing the A-frame code to, say, add monsters or other fun educational tools into the maze.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 04.01.2016 5 Comments

    Collecting large amounts of data and then using it to "teach" computers to automatically recognize patterns is pretty much standard practice nowadays. It seems that, given enough data and the right methods, computers can get quite precise at detecting or predicting nearly anything, whether it is face recognition, fraud detection or movie recommendations.

    Whenever a new classification system is created, it is taken for granted that the system should be as precise as possible. Of course, classifiers that never make mistakes are rare, but if it possible, we should strive to have them make as few mistakes as possible, right? Here is a fun example, where things are not as obvious.


    Consider a bank, which, as is normal for a bank, makes money by giving loans to its customers. Of course, there is always a risk that a customer will default (i.e. not repay the loan). To account for that, the bank has a risk scoring system which, for a given loan application, assesses the probability that the corresponding customer may default. This probability is later used to compute the interest rate offered for the customer. To simplify a bit, the issued interest on a loan might be computed as the sum of customer's predicted default risk probability and a fixed profit margin. For example, if a customer is expected to default with probability 10% and the bank wants 5% profit on its loans on average, the loan might be issued at slightly above 15% interest. This would cover both the expected losses due to non-repayments as well as the profit margin.

    Now, suppose the bank managed to develop a perfect scoring algorithm. That is, each application gets a rating of either having 0% or 100% risk. Suppose as well that within a month the bank processes 1000 applications, half of which are predicted to be perfectly good, and half - perfectly bad. This means that 500 loans get issued with a 5% interest rate, while 500 do not get issued at all.

    Think what would happen, if the system would not do such a great job and confused 50 of the bad applications with the good ones? In this case 450 applications would be classified as "100%" risk, while 550 would be assigned a risk score of "9.1%" (we still require the system to provide valid risk probability estimates). In this case the bank would issue a total of 550 loans at 15%. Of course, 50 of those would not get repaid, yet this loss would be covered from the increased interest paid by the honest lenders. The financial returns are thus exactly the same as with the perfect classifier. However, the bank now has more clients. More applications were signed, and more contract fees were received.

    True, the clients might be a bit less happy for getting a higher interest rate, but assuming they were ready to pay it anyway, the bank does not care. In fact, the bank would be more than happy to segment its customers by offering higher interest rates to low-risk customers anyway. It cannot do it openly, though. The established practices usually constrain banks to make use of "reasonable" scorecards and offer better interest rates to low-risk customers.

    Hence, at least in this particular example, a "worse" classifier is in fact better for business. Perfect precision is not really the ultimately desired feature. Instead, the system is much more useful when it provides a relevant and "smooth" distribution of predicted risk scores, making sure the scores themselves are decently precise estimates for the probability of a default.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 18.06.2015 No Comments

    The developments of proper GPU-based implementations of neural network training methods in the recent years have lead to a steady growth of exciting practical examples of their potential. Among others, the topic of face recognition (not to be confused with face detection) is on the steady rise. Some 5 years ago or so, decent face recognition tools were limited to Google Picasa and Facebook, some research labs and a few commercial products, often branded with the word "Biometrics" (that somehow seems to grow out of fashion nowadays).

    Today things are different. Given a decently large labeled dataset, some knowledge of machine learning, familiarity with the GPU-based "deep learning" tools, and sufficient perseverence, one can design a reasonably impressive face recognizer system in a matter of several weeks or months at most. Consequently, now is the time when we can see recognition-based startups receive millions in funding. Just some months ago Microsoft came out with their own public face detection and recognition API (which got its fair share of publicity in the form of a funny age-guessing tool).

    The Hype Cycle

    The Hype Cycle

    Hence, the growth in popularity and use of face recognition is apparent. Given that the initially overinflated hype around the whole deep learning buzzword seems to have more-or-less settled down to reality, this time the growth is realistic. We are probably on the "enlightenment" segment of the hype cycle here, very close to reaching actual productivity (which is not without issues, though).

    Tambet and Ardi of our institute's neuroscience research group seemed to have caught the noospheric trend and are working on a neural-network based face recognizer with the initial aim of using it to sort and organize historical photos from the Estonian National Archives.

    During a Skype University Hackathon, which happened in April I had the chance to join forces with them to present their efforts in the form of a fun public web app. The idea was to let people search for similar faces in the Estonian archive photos. The resulting site was called "teisik.ee" ("doppelganger" in Estonian). Although it does not seem to exactly fulfil the "doppelganger finding" purpose, it does manage to identify persons known to the system from the database surprisingly well.


    Output from teisik.ee

    Output from teisik.ee

    Having observed that finding matches to celebrities, even if they are not perfect matches, is entertaining in its own way, we also managed to put up a second version of the service (all within that same weekend!), codenamed celebritymatch.me. This app lets you search the dataset of celebrity faces for those which are apparently similar (according to the opinion of our neural network, at least). Try it, it is not perfect, but rather fun.

    The implementation of the recognition system is rather straightforward for anyone who knows what a convolutional network is and otherwise pretty impossible to grasp in full, hence I won't go into much technical detail. It is implemented using Caffe and consists of three consequtive convolutional layers (with ReLU and max-pooling), followed by a fully-connected hidden layer, which is then fully-connected to a softmax classification output layer. The outputs of the penultimate layer (of size 64) are used as the feature representation of the face. Those feature representations are then used to find Euclidean-distance-wise nearest neighbors in the database of faces. The future plans are to later apply the probably smarter FaceNet approach to network training for the same use case. The webapp is done using Flask.

    Right after the hackathon Tambet was invited to give an interview about the project on Estonian television. If you understand Estonian, check it out, it is very good.


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  • Posted by Konstantin 21.04.2015 No Comments
    "Hello world" in Flask

    "Hello world" in Flask

    Over the recent years I happen to have made several small personal projects using Python's Flask web framework. The framework is designed to provide a very minimalistic "bottom-up" approach. It feels slightly less cluttered and imposing than some of the popular alternatives, thus fitting nicely for the projects a single person might typically want to hack up in a spare weekend. Minimalism of Flask does not mean it is somehow limited or unsuitable for larger projects - perhaps on the contrary, small size of the framework means there are fewer restrictions on what and how you can do with it.

    What a small framework needs to be applied comfortably beyond its 6-line "Hello-World" use case, however, is a decent starter project template that would include some of the most common bells and whistles. And indeed, there happen to be several such templates available. I used parts of them over time in my own projects, however I always ended redoing/rewriting/renaming bits and pieces to fit my personal aesthetic needs. Eventually I got tired of renaming and packaged a Flask application template in the way I consistently prefer to use it. I am not sure whether it is objectively better or worse than the alternatives. None the less, if at some point you decide to give Flask a try, let me suggest you try this template of mine as your point of origin.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 05.04.2015 4 Comments

    When it comes to data analysis, there are hundreds of exciting approaches: simple summary statistics and hypothesis tests, various clustering methods, linear and nonlinear regression or classification techniques, neural networks of various types and depths, decision rules and frequent itemsets, feature extractors and dimension reductors, ensemble methods, bayesian approaches and graphical models, logic-based approaches and fuzzy stuff, ant colonies, genetic algorithms and other optimization methods, monte-carlo algorithms, sampling and density estimation, logic-based and graph methods. Don't even get me started on the numerous visualization techniques.

    This sheer number of options is, however, both a blessing and a curse at the same time. In many practical situations just having those methods at your disposal may pose more problems than solutions. First you need to pick one of the approaches that might possibly fit your purpose. Then you will try to adapt it appropriately, spend several iterations torturing the data only to obtain very dubious first results, come to the conclusion that most probably you are doing something wrong, reconvince yourself that you need to try harder in that direction, spend some more iterations testing various parameter settings. Nothing works as you want it to, so you start everything from scratch with another method to find yourself obtaining new, even more dubious results, torturing the data even further, getting tired of that and finally settling on something "intermediately decent", which "probably makes sense", although you are not so sure any more and feel frustrated.

    I guess life of a statistician was probably way simpler back in the days when you could run a couple of t-tests, or an F-test from a linear regression and call it a day. In fact, it seems that many experimental (e.g. wetlab) scientists still live in that kind of world, when it comes to analyzing their experimental results. The world of T-tests is cozy and safe. They don't get you frustrated. Unfortunately, t-tests can feel ad-hockish, because they force you to believe that something "is normally distributed". Also, in practice, they are mainly used to confirm the obvious rather than discover something new from the data. A simple scatterplot will most often be better than a t-test as an analysis method. Hence, I am not a big fan of T-tests. However, I do have my own favourite statistical method, which always feels cozy and safe, and never gets me frustrated. I tend to apply it whenever I see a chance. It is the Fisher exact test in the particular context of feature selection.

    My appreciation of it stems from my background in bioinformatics and some experience with motif detection in particular. Suppose you have measured the DNA sequences for a bunch of genes. What can you do to learn something new about the sequence structure from that data? One of your best bets is to first group your sequences according to some known criteria. Suppose you know from previous experiments that some of the genes are cancer-related whereas others are not. As soon as you have specified those groups, you can start making observations like the following: "It seems that 10 out of my 20 cancer-related genes have the subsequence GATGAG in their DNA code. The same sequence is present in only 5 out of 100 non-cancer-related ones. How probable would it be to obtain similar counts of GATGAG, if the two groups were picked randomly?" If the probability to get those counts at random is very low, then obviously there is something fishy about GATGAG and cancer - perhaps they are related. To compute this probability you will need to use the hypergeometric distribution, and the resulting test (i.e. the question "how probable is this situation in a random split?") is known as the Fishers' exact test.

    This simple logic (with a small addition of a multiple testing correction on top) has worked wonders for finding actually important short sequences on the DNA. Of course it is not limited to sequence search. One of our research group's most popular web tools uses the same approach to discover functional annotations, that are "significantly overrepresented" in a given group of genes. The same approach can be used to construct decision trees, and in pretty much any other "supervised learning" situation, where you have groups of objects and want to find binary features of those objects, associated with the groups.

    Although in general the Fisher test is just one particular measure of association, it is, as I noted above, rather "cozy and comfortable". It does not force me to make any weird assumptions, there is no "ad-hoc" aspect to it, it is simple to compute and, most importantly, in my experience it nearly always produces "relevant" results.

    Words overrepresented in the speeches of Greece MPs

    Words overrepresented in the speeches of Greece MPs

    A week ago me, Ilya and Alex happened to take part in a small data analysis hackathon, dedicated to the analysis of speech transcripts from the European Parliament. Somewhat analogously to DNA sequences, speeches can be grouped in various ways: you can group them by the speaker who gave them, by country, gender or political party of that speaker, by the month or year when the speech was given or by any combination of such groupings. The obvious "features" of a speech are words, which can be either present or not present in it. Once you view the problem this way the task of finding group-specific words becomes self-evident and the Fisher test is the natural solution to it. We implemented this idea and extracted "country-specific" and "time-specific" words from the speeches (other options were left out due to time constraints). As is usual the case with my favourite method, the obtained results look relevant, informative and, when shown in the form of a word cloud, fun. Check them out.

    The complete source code of the analysis scripts and the visualization application is available on Github.


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  • Posted by Konstantin 22.01.2015 31 Comments

    Yesterday I happened to attend a discussion about the security and privacy of information stored locally in Skype and Thunderbird profiles. It turns out, if you obtain a person's Skype profile directory, you will be able to log in as him without the need to know the password. In addition, Dominique made a remark that Skype does not really delete the messages that are marked as "removed" in the chat window. I found that curious and decided to take a closer look.

    Indeed, there is a bunch of *.dat files in the chatsync subdirectory of the Skype's profile, which preserve all messages along with all their edits or deletions. Unfortunately, the *.dat files are in some undocumented binary format, and the only tool I found for reading those lacks in features. However, hacking up a small Python parser according to what is known about the format, along with a minimalistic GUI is a single evening's exercise, and I happened to be in the mood for some random coding.

    Skype Chatsync Viewer

    Skype Chatsync Viewer

    Now, if you want to check out what was that message you or your conversation partner wrote before it was edited or deleted, this package will help. If you are not keen on installing Python packages, here is a standalone Windows executable.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 19.03.2014 1 Comment

    Despite the popularity of Python, I find that many of its best practices are not extremely well-documented. In particular, whenever it comes to starting a new Python project, quite a lot of people would follow whatever the very first Python tutorial taught them (or whatever their IDE creates), and start churning out .py files, perhaps organizing them into subdirectories along the way. This is not a good idea. Eventually they would stumble upon problems like "how do I distribute my code""how do I manage dependencies", "where do I put documentation""how (and when) should I start writing tests for my code", etc. Dealing with those issues "later" is always much more annoying than starting with a proper project layout in the first place.

    Although there is no unique standard for a project layout, there are some established best practices. In particular (and this seems to be not very widely known), one of the easiest ways to create a new Python package (i.e., develop anything in Python that will have to be distributed later), is to make use of the paster or cookiecutter tools. Simply running

    $ paster create <package_name>


    $ cookiecutter https://github.com/audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage.git

    will ask you some questions and initialize a well-formed setuptools-based package layout for you. A slightly more involved yet still minimalistic starter code is provided by additional paster/cookiecutter templates, such as modern-package-template:

    $ pip install modern-package-template
    $ paster create -t modern_package <package_name>

    Naturally, every developer will tend to customize the setup, by adding the necessary tools. Moreover, the preferred setup evolves with time, as various tools and services come in and out of existence. Ten years ago, buildout or git were not yet around. Five years ago, there was no tox and nose was better than py.test. Services like Travis-CI and Github are even younger yet.

    Although I tend to experiment a lot with my setup, over the recent couple of years I seem to have converged to a fairly stable Python environment, which I decided to share as a reusable template and recommend anyone to make use of it.

    Thus, next time you plan to start a new Python project, try beginning with:

    $ pip install python_boilerplate_template
    $ paster create -t python_boilerplate <project_name>

    or, alternatively,

    $ pip install cookiecutter
    $ cookiecutter https://github.com/konstantint/cookiecutter-python-boilerplate

    More information here (for paster) or here (for cookiecutter). Contributions and constructive criticism welcome via Github.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 20.01.2014 No Comments

    Bitcoin is a cryptographic currency, that has gained a lot of hype in the last year. From a technical perspective, it is simply a distributed timestamping scheme, fully dedicated to establishing the order of monetary transactions, by creating a long block chain.

    Adding a new block to the block chain requires extremely expensive distributed computations. Thus, in terms of the amount of energy, invested by the users worldwide into its creation, the block chain is, at the moment, probably the most expensive computer-generated file in human history. A monument to the raw "computation for the sake of computation". The Bitcoin network by now includes hundreds of thousands of users, most of whom keep a full copy of the block chain and contribute to its further growth.

    Timestamping hash, published in a paper

    All that means that including any information into the block chain can act as a solid timestamp, proving the existence of this information at a particular point in time. It is nearly impossible to fake or revoke. Even if the Bitcoin network would cease working, the block chain would probably be kept around at least as a curious artifact (as well as an object of interest for data miners) . The idea is equivalent to a popular practice of timestamping information by publishing it in a widely distributed newspaper. However, publishing in a popular newspaper may be costly, while getting transactions into the block chain is nearly free and accessible to anyone.

    Consequently, it seems obvious that sooner or later the bitcoin block chain must begin to be used for timestamping things other than transactions. Because trusted timestamping is a big deal. Everyone in Estonia knows that.

    Unfortunately, it seems that although the idea has been mentioned before, there do not seem to be any convenient services developed for that, apart from BTProof, which is somewhat too simplistic, given the potential importance of the task at hand. In an attempt to perhaps inspire someone to consider imlementing a more serious service of this kind, let me give a brief overview of the ways to get your data into the block chain.

    Smuggling your data into the block chain

    If only Bitcoin transactions were allowed to have textual descriptions assigned to them, the task would be trivial: any piece of information you want to timestamp could be simply mentioned in the description of a transaction. However, this functionality is not part of the Bitcoin protocol, so we have to use tricks. At least three different techniques are possible here.

    1.  Specifying your data as a destination address.

    Each Bitcoin transaction includes a "destination address", which is a 34-character string in hex-like encoding. This address may be specified arbitrarily. Thus, by transferring any amount to an address, which itself is the hash of the information you need timestamped, you will have the fact of information's existence mentioned in the block chain for future generations to behold. This is the idea behind BTProof. There are several problems with this method. Most importantly, anything you transfer to a nonexistent address will get lost forever, with no one being able to claim it. This makes the process non-free, because you cannot have transactions of size 0. Moreover, very small transactions are unfavoured by the Bitcoin network and take a long time to get verified. Finally, leaving "unclaimed" transactions forever hanging in the block chain is somewhat indecent in the first place, isn't it?

    The abovementioned drawbacks may be addressed using multi-signature transactions. Those are a special type of transactions, which allow the funds to be claimed by any one of several addresses. In this case one address can be used to encode the hash and another one — to reclaim the funds spent in the transaction back. This concept has been suggested as the way to carry arbitrary data on top of Bitcoin in the MasterCoin project.

    2. Specifying your data as a destination private key.

    Rather than converting the data you need timestamped into a (non-existent) address, you can turn it into a private key. You can then perform two transactions. The first one  transfers funds to an address, corresponding to this private key, and next one uses the private key to withdraw the funds back to you. As there is a fixed mapping from your data to the private key to the address that the funds went through, you have just included a trace of your data into the block chain. This method is mentioned here. The drawback is the need for two transactions, and the overall complexity of the scheme.

    3. Specifying your data in the script.

    Finally, the last two places in a bitcoin transaction, which allow custom data, are the two "script" fields. Namely, the act of depositing funds to a transaction in Bitcoin is not as simple as providing the target address. Instead, it is a script, that, when executed, is supposed to check the right of the receiver to obtain the funds. Similarly, the act of withdrawing funds from Bitcoin is expressed by a script that proves the rights of the owner.

    For example, a typical "deposition script" looks as follows:

    OP_PUSHDATAx <target_address>

    This script means that in order to withdraw the funds, the receiver must push on the stack a signature of the transaction, followed by his public key. The script then starts executing by first duplicating (OP_DUP) the top value on the stack, the public key. It then applies a hash function (OP_HASH160) to the top value on the stack (this converts the public key to an address). Then another value is pushed onto the stack (OP_PUSHDATAx). Next, two top values are popped and checked for equality (OP_EQUALVERIFY). This verifies, that the receiver's address matches <target_address>. Finally, the OP_CHECKSIG command pops another two values from the stack (those are the signature and the public key now, remember), and verifies the correctness of the signature.

    The beauty of the system is that it lets you create various rules for claiming funds apart from simply owning a private key to an address. For example, it is possible to create transactions which require multiple parties to collude to withdraw them. Or you may require the receiver of the funds to solve a puzzle. Or you may even put the funds up for anyone to take freely, etc.

    What is important for our purposes, however, is that the scripting language is rather flexible. In particular, it lets you add useless commands, such as "push this data onto stack, then drop the top value from stack, then continue as normal:"

    OP_PUSHDATAx <any_data> 
    OP_PUSHDATAx <target_address>

    This logic could be included in either the "depositing" or the "receiving" script, letting you essentially provide arbitrary "notes" in transactions and thus do timestamp data in the most reasonable way. This lets you timestamp using a single transaction, which recurrently transfers any amount from an address to itself.

    Unfortunately, it seems that the freedom of scripting has been severely limited in the recent versions of Bitcoin software. Namely, transactions with any nonstandard scripts are simply declined from inclusion into a block (at least, none of my attempts to try this out succeeded). Even the fate of multi-signature transactions, mentioned in point 1 (which are just a particular kind of a script) is not completely clear. In any case, the Bitcoin specification will most probably evolve to eventually allow storing dedicated data packets in the block chain without the need to resort to hacks. And if not Bitcoin, perhaps such functionality will become part of one of the competing similar cryptocurrencies.

    It seems unreasonable to run a huge distributed timestamping algorithm, and not let people use it for general-purpose timestamping, doesn't it?

    Update: Given the recent problems related to the transaction malleability aspect of the protocol, it is easy to predict that the freedom of scripting will probably be limited even further in the future. However, eventually support must be added for storing a custom nonce into the signed transaction (as it seems to be the only reasonable way to make transactions uniquely identifiable despite malleability of their hash). That nonce would be a perfect candidate for general-purpose timestamping purposes.

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  • Posted by Konstantin 25.02.2013 5 Comments

    Most of bioinformatics revolves, in one way or another, around the genome. Even in the largely "non-genomic" areas, such as systems biologyproteomics, or metabolomics, the key players are still genes, proteins, and their regulatory regions, which can be associated with particular points on the genome. Consequently, no matter what kind of data you work with, if you do bioinformatics, you will sooner or later have to deal with genomic coordinates.

    To interpret genomic coordinates you need to know the reference genome version and coordinate conventions used. Does the data file mention those?

    To interpret genomic coordinates you need to know the reference genome version and coordinate conventions used. Does the data file mention those?

    Surprisingly, despite being of such central importance to bioinformatics, the whole genomic coordinate business seems to be in a rather unfriendly state nowadays. Firstly, there are several ways to refer to genomic positions (e.g. 0-based vs 1-based indexing), and for every possible combination of conventions, there is at least one file format that will be using it. Then, of course, you have to deal with several versions of the reference genome, and, to make your life harder yet, most data files will not tell you what genome version should be used to interpret the coordinates stored there. Finally, if you decide that you need to unify the coordinates among your different data files by converting them to the same reference genome version, you will find out that your only tools here are a couple of heavyweight web apps and a command-line UCSC liftOver utility. Should you look for R or Python libraries to script your task, you will discover that those do no smarter than forward all the conversion tasks to that same liftOver.

    I found this is all to be extremely wrong and hacked up a tiny Python tool recently, which will happily convert your coordinates without the need to invoke an external liftOver process. It does not fully replace liftOver (yet?), as it does not convert regions - a task just a bit more tricky than lifting over single points. However it lets you do single-point conversion in the simplest way possible:

    1. from pyliftover import LiftOver
    2. lo = LiftOver('hg17', 'hg18')
    3. lo.convert_coordinate('chr1', 1000000, '-') # 0-based indexing

    As usual, install via: easy_install pyliftover (or pip install pyliftover)

    For more information consult the PyPI page.

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